What is the difference between steer, cow, half-bleached cow, bull and buffalo/bufalo skins?

All four skins types are bovine. A steer is a castrated male, a cow is a female, and a bull is a male. The main difference in the tonal quality of the skins comes from the level of the testosterone in the animal. Testosterone in bulls produces a hide that is thick, dense and tough.

When it comes to the rawhide, there is very little difference between cow and steer. Most tanners will tell you they can’t tell the difference between them after the hide has been processed. The way that they are processed can make more of a difference in the look, feel and sound than the sex of the animal. I have found that mostly what people want when they ask for cow is a skin that looks lighter in color. The color is due to processing with lime or certain other chemicals, and it also gives a different sound characteristic than the way our steer skins are processed.

Bull rawhide is normally much thicker and harder than steer or cow. I don’t normally use bull for drums because it doesn’t resonate as freely, is harder to get a good sound from, and can be very hard on the hands.

We source two different types of Buffalo/Bufalo skins- Nili Ravi water buffalo from the Middle East and Bufalo from Brazil, neither to be confused with North American Buffalo. Nili Ravi is very thick and dense, while Bufalo is supple, and the favorite in Brazil.


Do you carry Mule skin for congas or bongos?

In the past we offered what we thought were thick mule skins for congas, but a DNA test from a major agricultural university revealed that they have absolutely no horse, mule or donkey genetics. They do have some bovine DNA markers, and were likely Nili Ravi water buffalo marketed as mule. These skins perform well for the thick conga head aficionados, and can be purchased through our store.

For bongo machos, we have changed to using horse skin. Horse is a bit brighter than mule skin, yet it is every bit as tough and tonal.

What are PreMounted Heads and how do I mount them on my drum?

PreMounted heads are designed to take the work out of stretching your own heads. We mount our premium skins on 1/4″ stainless steel flesh hoops, ready to mount on your drum.  They are crafted specifically for each brand and model of drum, and should result in a “plug and play” scenario.

It is rare, but if you should experience any kind of fitment issue, please contact us at info@manitopercussion.com before proceeding. 

There are instances when a drum shell is out of round. If this is the case, the best way to mount them is first to turn the head upside down like a bowl and place about 1/2″ of warm water in the head for about 30 minutes. This will soften the skin where it meets the bearing edge of the drum and lubricate it a bit for mounting. Tighten the tuning lugs across from each other in pairs until you have it at a medium tuning.  You don’t want it loose, but the head isn’t ready for high tuning yet.  The head will then mold to the bearing edge and create the perfect fit with the drum.  Once mounted, allow the head to dry for 2 days before tuning it up high. Please do not put water or oils in or on the head for any other reason as this will void the warranty. 


What type of conga skin do you recommend for congas with too much ringing in the tones?

Drum shells can carry an inherent ringing overtone quality depending on the material type, construction method and the dimensions of the shell. For example, fiberglass drums are known to be a bit louder, but usually have a lot of ring.  The tonal quality of the drum shell itself can be heard by removing the head, placing your ear next to the shell and LIGHTLY knocking on the drum shell. Be careful because the tone can be very loud right in your ear!

Matching skins to the tonal qualities of the shell is very important in getting the purest sound from the drum. For drums with more high end overtones or rings, a thicker, lower density skin is often preferred. This would include thicker Steer, Cow or Black Gold™ Buffalo.

For drum shells with a dryer sound, a more lively skin can be used to pull out more tone, sustain and volume from the shell. Medium or medium/thick Steer, Cow, Black Gold™ Buffalo or Half Bleached Cow skins are a good choice for this, depending on the size of the drum. The larger the drum and relative to the drum size, the thicker the recommended skin.


What thickness of skin should I put on my drums?

The thickness of skin, no matter what type of rawhide, can make a big difference in the sound of a drum. As the thickness of a drumhead increases, the tones tend to be more muted with a decreased overtone potential and lower volume. When choosing a skin for your drum, the bearing edge or playing surface diameter will help determine the thickness you want. 

After over 20 years of experimenting with different skin types and thicknesses, we recommend the following:

For Machos in the 6.75″ to 7.25″ range: .6mm-1mm

For Hembras in the 8″to 9″ range: 1.2mm-1.5mm

For Quintos in the 10.5″ to 11″ range:  1.3mm-1.6mm

For Congas in the 11″ to 11.75″ range: 1.6mm-2mm

For Tumbas in the 12″ to 13″ range: 2mm+

For Super Tumbas over 13″:  2.2mm+

For Requintos or Rumba Quintos thickness can vary.  A thicker head will give a drier Rumba type sound.  A thinner skin will have more of a bell quality that’s great for a full conga setup.

All of that said, the most important factor in choosing a skin is knowing what type of sound you are looking for.  Individual preferences vary all over the map. 

Remember, a thinner skin will tend to be louder, brighter and have more overtones.  A thicker skin will tend to soak up overtones and have very smooth and warm open tones. 

What size steer skin should I mount on my drum?

To mount a flat skin on your drum, it is important to have a large enough skin size to make it easy.  Having a slightly larger skin can make the difference between an easy job and a struggle.

We recommend the following sizes:

For Machos in the 6.75″ to 7.25″ range: 14″ skin

For Hembras in the 8″to 9″ range: 15″-16″ skin

For Requintos in the 9.5″ to 11″ range: 18″ skin

For Quintos in the 10.5″ to 11″ range: 20″ skin

For Congas in the 11″ to 11.75″ range: 20″ skin

For Tumbas in the 12″ to 12.75″ range: 20″ skin

For Super Tumbas over 12.75″: 22″ skin

How do you get your skins to have an even thickness?

We spend a lot of time choosing the right suppliers and building long term relationships with the most skilled tanners we can find. A great deal of time is spent sampling new skins from processors, and we only choose the best skins for our drums and yours. We cut whole cow, steer and horse hides into rounds that are A+ quality so our customers don’t have to worry about receiving skins that are of inferior quality.  There is often a good deal of loss and extra skin from whole hides that we just can’t use for a variety of reasons. At Manito Percussion, we also offer a very liberal exchange and refund policy to make sure that the skins our customers receive are exactly what they want for their drums. Our quality and prices reflect a commitment to you, the musicians dedicated to the art of drumming!

Having an even thickness is important in choosing any skin, but some small variation is ok and sometimes preferable. I know, some of the drummers out there just gasped! I’m not a big fan of sanded or planed skins which are processed to have perfectly even thickness. There is something too clear that happens in the tone, a sort of loss of warmth. I often compare it to the way Pan Flutes are made in Peru. When they’re first tuned it’s to perfect intervals. They then go back and push the tuning ever so slightly out of perfection because it just sounds better, more organic to our ears. Much like the gain knob on an amplifier, it gives the skin some growl and meatiness that feels and sounds more natural and less processed.

What is your return policy/guarantee/warranty?

Manito Percussion Congas and drums are guaranteed to be free from defects in workmanship for 5 years from the date of purchase. Nontransferable. Original owner only. Misuse or modification voids warranty.

Custom Hardware carries a lifetime limited warranty for repair or replacement. Warranty covers defects in materials or workmanship. Buyer pays return shipping. If defect is deemed to be caused by workmanship or material failure, all shipping charges will be credited to the buyer. Fully custom hardware items that are not kept in stock can not be canceled once work has started and are not eligible for returns or exchanges unless damaged or defective.

Flat skins and PreMounted heads carry a 60-day limited warranty. Warranty covers defects in materials or workmanship. Flat skins and PreMounted heads may be exchanged for another flat skin or PreMounted head if unused and in original condition only. Skins may not be exchanged if buyer applies any oils or conditioners. Buyer pays return shipping. If defect is deemed to be caused by workmanship or material, all shipping charges will be credited to the buyer.

What are the hardware parts of my conga or bongo called?

Modern conga and bongo hardware is comprised of several metal parts.

The CROWN is the very top metal rim that has “V” or “U” shaped pieces that the tuning lugs attach to.  This is an example of a crown:

The Flesh Hoop is the smaller ring that goes inside the skin.  Our flesh hoops are made of 304 stainless steel and TiG welded for extra strength.  This is a flesh hoop:


How do I measure the crown?

There is a simple way to measure the crown of your conga, bongo or other hand drum.  If you’re ordering a flesh hoop, we will need some measurements from your drums.

By removing the heads and crowns of your drums and taking pictures like these, we will be able to determine the perfect size to make your custom flesh hoop or crown.

Follow the simple steps as shown in the pictures below for traditional crowns.

For rounded comfort crowns, follow this method:

Measuring the crown. Measuring the crown. Measuring the crown.

For the modern comfort crowns:

Measuring the crown. Measuring the crown. Measuring the crown.

For  half-round crowns:

Measuring the crown Measuring the crown Measuring the crown



What style of crown do I have?

Traditional Crown

EzCurve Crown

ComfortCurve 1 Crown

ComfortCurve 2 Crown

Z Crown

Half Round Moderna Crown